Morphological classification of languages

Morphological classification of languages ??- typological classification of planet languages ??depending on the principles of morphological structure of words.

According to this classification, all languages ??are divided into: root, agglutinative, inflectional and polysynthetic.

Root languages

In root languages, words don’t break down into morphemes: roots and affixes. Words of such languages ??are essay writing morphologically unformed units including indefinite words of your Ukrainian language there, here, from exactly where, where. The root languages ??are Vietnamese, Burmese, Old Chinese, largely modern Chinese. Grammatical relations among words in these languages ??are transmitted by intonation, service words, word order.

Agglutinative languages

Agglutinative languages ??involve Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages. In their structure, also towards the root, there are affixes (each word-changing and word-forming). The peculiarity of affixes in these languages ??is the fact that each and every affix is ??unambiguous, ie each of them serves to express only a single grammatical meaning, with whatever root it is combined. This can be how they differ from inflectional languages, in which the affix acts as a carrier of various grammatical meanings at once.

Inflectional languages

Inflectional languages ??- languages ??in which the leading function inside the expression of grammatical meanings is played by inflection (ending). Inflectional languages ??involve Indo-European and Semitic-Hamitic. As opposed to agglutinative languages, where affixes are unambiguous, common and mechanically attached to full words, in inflectional languages ??the ending is ambiguous, non-standard, joins the base, which is generally not utilised with out inflection, and organically merges with all the base, forming a single alloy, consequently, a variety of modifications can take place at the junction of morphemes. The formal interpenetration of contacting morphemes, which results in the blurring with the boundaries involving them, is called fusion. Therefore the second name of inflectional languages ??- fusion.

Polysynthetic languages

Polysynthetic, or incorporating – languages ??in which distinctive components of a sentence within the kind of amorphous base words are combined into a single complex, related to complicated words. Thus, in the language in the Aztecs (an Indian individuals living in Mexico), the word-sentence pinakapilkva, which suggests I consume meat, was formed from the composition of the words pi – I, nakatl – meat and kvya – to consume. Such a word corresponds to our sentence. This can be explained by the fact that in polysynthetic languages ??distinct objects of action and situations in which the action takes location is often expressed not by person members of the sentence (applications, situations), but by different affixes that happen to be aspect of verb types. In part, the verb forms consist of the topic.

Typological classification of languages ??- a classification based on the identification of similarities and differences inside the structure of languages, irrespective of their genetic relatedness.

Thus, if the genealogical classification unites languages ??by their origin, then the typological classification divides languages ??by the attributes of their structure, irrespective of their origin and location in space. Along with the term typological classification of languages, the term morphological classification is frequently used as a synonym. Such use of the term morphological classification of languages ??as opposed to typological classification of languages ??is unjustified and inappropriate for various motives. Initially, the word morphological is related in linguistics with the term morphology, which indicates the grammatical doctrine of your word and the structure on the word, not the language as a whole. By the way, some linguists fully grasp the morphological classification: speaking of morphological, or typological, classification, we mean the classification of languages ??on the basis of morphological structure, word type. In actual fact, the typological classification goes far beyond morphology. Secondly, in recent years, numerous kinds of typological classification have turn out to be increasingly common: morphological, syntactic, phonetic, and so on.

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